亚美集团电子娱乐

                    
                    
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                    LiShantong,HouYongzhi,ficientofvariation(1)FromthefoundationofnewChina1949to1978,,intheearlyyearsofreformthegapwasstillgreatbetweentheeastern,,,,,,,atoftheconsumptionlevel.(2)Asindicatedbythechangesintheregionalgapsince1990,theregionalgapwidenssharplywhentheeconomygrowsatafastpaceandlesssowheneconomicgrowthslows.(3),thegapinGDPpercapitabetweeneachprovincialunitisgreaterthanthatintheconsumption,thethreecurvesofGDPpercapita,consumptionlevelandincomepercapitaofurban/,,supportrenderedbytheeconomicallyadvancedprovincesandcentralgovernmentalagenciestotheeducationandmedicalcaresectorsincentralandwesternregions,particularlythewesternregionofthecountry,contributestotheimprovementofthelivingstandardsandsocialprogressthere.亚美集团电子娱乐hvariousmacro-regulativemeasuresgraduallycomingintoforce,inthefirsthalfoftheyearChina’seconomyisdevelopingtowardtheexpectedregulativedirection,whichmainlyincludes:,thegrossdomesticproduct(GDP),%overthesameperiodoflastyear,years,,a1%,,%.,,%,%,,,%,,%overlastyearand,withthepricefactorbeingdeducted,%.,,%overthesameperiodoflastyear,ofwhichurbanconsumerpricesgrew3%%.%%,totalimportandexportvaluereached523billionUSdollars,%,,%;,%.Withtheimportoffsettingexport,,,%overlastyear;,%.,,,theper-capitadisposableincomeoftheurbanandruralresidentsreached4815yuan,%overlastyearand,withthepricefactorbeingdeducted,%,,%and,withthepricefactorbeingdeducted,%,rThefocalpointsunderthecontrolofthemacro-regulationhavingstartedinthelaterhalfoflastyearincludelanddevelopmentandrentappro,butalsotheinputareasareregulated(Theindustrieswhosedevelopmentiscontrolledaredetermined).Notonlyareeconomicmeasuresbeingused(suchasadjustmentofdepositreservefundrateandstrengtheningofpublicmarketoperation),butalsotheadministrativemeasuresarebeingused(whichrequiresthatthelocalitiesshouldmaintainconsistencywiththecentralgovernmentandshouldmakedirectexaminationoftheloansprovidedbythestate-ownedcommercialbanksandmakeathoroughcheckupoftheinvestmentprojects).Themechanismistocontrolthesupplyofsuchkeyelementsaslandandfundthrougheconomicandadministrativemeasures,coupledwiththedirectmanagementoftheinvestmentinpartoftheindustries,torestraineconomyfromg,themacro-regulativeandadministrativemeasuresafterAprilhavebeenenhancedabit,settingcomparativelystrictdemandsontheunificationofgovernmentdecrees,andtheregulationhasgonedeepintospecificindustriesandhasconcernedinvestmentandloanprojects,andthespaceforindependentconductsofthelocalgovernments,,themarkets,thesupply-demandsituationoftheproductsinshortsupply,mainlyincludingfoodstuff,steelproducts,cementandnonferrousmetals,,itisbecausesupplyhasgrownfast,ontheotherhand,itisbecausethegrowthofdemandhassloweddown(Itismainlythesupplyoffoodstuffthathasincreased.).AfterMarch,themarketexpectancyfortheseproductshassuccessivelychanged,thestock-releasinghasbeguntoincrease,gvariou,growthofmoneysupplyandinvestmenthassloweddown,,the,theupgradingoftheconsumptionstructurehasbeguntoappearstable,andthegrowthofsalesofhousesandautomobilestendstogetsteadygradually,,Chinahasb,thefirsthalfof2004shoulwillfallbackalittleinthethirdquarterandnegativegrowthofinventoryinvestmentwillturnupinthefourthquarter....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

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                    亚美集团电子娱乐省邮政管理局与省民航发展建设委员会办公室联合制定邮政业民航业协同发展的具体措施 ZhangWenkuiResearchReportNo97,’s,tosolvetheproblemsofheavydebtofChina’sstate-ownedenterprises(SOEs)andtheresultanthugeamountsofnon-performingassetsofnationalbanks,someprogramswereputforwardforrestructuringthedebtsofbanksandenterprises,includingthedebt-to-equityswapprogramwithgreatinfluence(byZhouXiaochuanetal.,1994).Afterafewyearsofdeliberation,thedebt-to-equityswapprogramwasacceptedbythed,aninvestmentdepartmentwastobesetupineachcommercialbank,whatisactuallyadoptedist(AMCs)receivere-loansfromthecentralbankandpurchasethecreditor’srightstoenterprisesatfacevaluefromrespectivecommercialbanks,andtransferthemintoequityofenterprises,finally,alltheAMCsshallexi,thatistosay,theyshouldwithin10yearsaccomplishthe,thedebt-,therelevantdepartmentsrecommended601enterprisesforcarryingoutdebt-to-equityswaps,,themajorityoftherecommendedenterpriseshadconclu,thegeneralenterprisesurveyteamoftheStateStatisticsBureauconductedanoverallsurveyof504enterprisesthathadsignedofficialandframeworkagreementswithAMCs,itshowsthatinthefirstyear(2000)ofdebt-to-equityswaps,theenterprisesinvolvedintheswapwouldligh,aftercompletingthedebt-to-equityswap,,,enterprisesexpectedtogainprofitin2000amountedto439,,ofwhich,ownbyastilllargermargininsomelocalities,takeBeijingforanexample,in2000therewere17SOEsthatconcludedadebt-to-equityswapagreementwithAMCs,andaftercompletionofdebt-to-equityswap,,andlikewise,mosto,thedebtislibereachedin10yearsandthatthedebt-to-equityswappolicyisadvancingtowardstheexpectedgoalAsamatteroffact,theimmediateemergenceofprofitwasbasicallynotbroughtaboutbythedeep-rootedchangeintheenterprises,instead,themajorpartofprofitwasattributedtothechangeintheirfinancialstructure,inotherwords,lessdebtandinterestpaymenthasmadetheirbookslook"better"toanyfundamentalchangeintheirsituation,whatismoreimportantthanthefinancialstructureisthechangeinthestructuresofoperation,propertyrightsandgovernance(ZhangWenkui,1999).Inordertodeterminewhethertheimplementationofthedebt-to-equityswappolicyisconducivetoreachingtheexpectedgoal,wecannotbutemofenterprisesisworthyofourattention,becauseitnotonlyinvolveswhethertherestructuredenterprisesareabletofulfilltheirdebtobligationinthefuture,butalsohasabearingonwhethertheywillestablishasoundmechanisminafartherfutureunderwhichalltherespoisofvitalimportancetothesuccessofdebtrestructuringwhileanuncturedenterprisesinHungaryandPoland,itwasnotdtheinternalsituationoftheindebtedenterprise,thecreditorswereusuallyputintothepositionoffigureheads,therefore,notmuchimprovementwasmadeinthebusinessperformanceofmostdebt-restructuredenterprises(ZhangChunlin,1999).China’sdebt-to-equityswappolic,andtheinterestandbehavior-orientationofthenewshareholderwillexertanimpactonthegovernancestructureoftheenterprise,andthisisve:InternationalPerspectiveandTheoreticalProbeModerncapitalstructuretheoriesbelievethatequitycapitalanddebtcapitalplaydifferentrolesinenterprises,andanappropriatecapitalstructureisbeneficialtobot,however,thecapitalstructuredeviatesfromthereasonablelimitwithtoohighadebtratio,,debtrestructuringisusuallymoreacceptabletoallthepartiesconcernedthanliquidationafterbankruptcy....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.XiaBinResearchReportNo074,2004FromthephenomenonofnoneffectivenessofthetransmissionofmonetarypoliciesappearinginChinainrecentyears,IamoftheopinionthattherearemainlysixfactorsthataffectthecurrenttransmissivenoneffectivenessofChina’smonetarypolicies:thecontinualincreaseofthepossessionofforeignexchange,restrictionofthepresentprofit-makingpatternofstate-ownedcommercialbanks,pressureofdealingwithhistoricalbaddebtsandthesystemchangingtoanothertrack,thedisequilibriumofexcessreserveofcommercialbanks,andtheinsufficientdevelopmentofthefinancialmarket,,choicesshouldbemadeasoccasiondemandsaccordingtomarketprincipletoconscientiouslyandearnestlypushforwardthecontrollablefloatingexchangeratepolicysoastoenhancetheindependenceofthemonetarypoliciesofthecentralbanks;andcontinuetocarryoutproperlytightmonetarypolici’smedium-termandlong-termmonetarypoliciesincludes:edthesoonestpossibleandsensitivesu,proportionoftheinterestdifferentialinbusinessincomeshouldbereduced,(Proportionofthebondsheldbycommercialbanksshouldbeenlargedandaccomplishmentoftheassetturningintosecuritiesshouldbecarriedoutassoonaspossible.)toenfbanks’capitalsufficiencyrate,thusfurtherpr’worriesaboutthedeclineofanticipationoftheresidents’incomeshouldbedealtwithsoasto(thefocusisthemarketizationofthedepositinterestrates)shouldbepromotedinasteadyandcontinualway,butatthesametimetheinterestratehedgingbusinessmustbedevelopedtolightenthepressureofinterestrawninaningenio,allChina’sbankreservefunds,cashreceivable,%.ThesimilarindexforallAmericanbanksbefore1960was20%anddroppedto6%oconscientiouslyandearnestlypushforwardthecontrollablefloatingexchangeratepolicy,soa,thefollowingpointsmustbewelldealtwith:First,itshouldbeseenthatinthecourseoftheregulationthefocalpointsandthemeasuresofpartoftheindustriesand,thestartingpointfortheDiscriminatoryDepositReserveFundispositive,,withthefinancialreformgoingdeep,chancesshouldbechosentodecideuponthescopeofusefortheDiscriminatoryDepositReserveFundRate,,interestrateonexcessdepositreservefundrateshouldbebroughtdowngradually,interestrateexpectancyofthemoneymarketshouldbeguidedinacorrectwaytoenablethemovesofthemarketinterestratestoreflecttheintenti,withinashortperiodoftime,makingpublicofthepricetendersthatareoppositetothepolicyintentionsunsuitableforfrequentandalternatinguseofmarketoperationsdisruptingexpectancyofthefinancialinstitutionswilleventua,advantagesanddisadvantagesoftheinterestrates,exch,andtheroleofinterestratesandreservefundmeasuresishardtoputintopractice,thoughthestabilityofexchangeratesshouldbeemphasized,thenecessityandpossibilityoftheadjustmentoftheexchangeratestoaChinaEntrepreneurSurveySystemResearchReportNo212,2001TheChineseentrepreneurssurvey2001wasorganizedbytheChineseEntrepreneur,000questionnaireswereissuedinmid-August2001,ofwhich4,’s31provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernment,exceptHongKong,,state-owedandnon-state-ownedenterprisesrespectivelyaccountedfor31percentand69percent,andthelarge,,,generalmanagers,chiefexecutiveofficers,nincl,thesurveycoveredcorporatesystemchange,economicrestructuring,marketeconomicorderregulationandChina’wnturnintheUnitedStatesandJapan,China’’smacroeconomicperform,however,entrepreneursbelievedthatproblemssuchassaggingeffectivedemandandfinancingrestraintswerestillimpedingthedevelopmentofenterprisesandthatteadyprog’songoingeconomicrestructuringwastodevelophigh-anditutedthekeytocopingwithChina’sWTOacces,theybelievedthatcorporategovernanceneededfurtherimprovementandhopedthatthegovernmentcouldfurtherregulatemarketeconomicorder,,China’,however,thedemandforChina’sexportswa,ingeneral,,“normal”.“rathercool”or“toocool”.Thisproportionisroughlyidenticalwiththatinlastyear’ssurvey,’smacroeconomicoperationthisyearhaslargelymaintainedthegooddevelopmenttrendsince2000(seethefollowingfigure).Figure1ProportionofEntrepreneursBelievingMacroeconomicOperationWas“RatherCool”or“TooCool”inRecentYears

                    ’sRuralLaborMovementSinceReformandOpeningupSincethemid-1980s,,employmentbyTVEsroseto136millionpeople,,theoveralleconomicenvironmentforTVEsbeganundergoingtremendouschangesandente,theseenterprises’,TVEsemployedatotalof128millionpeople,,alpeopleare,AnhuiandGuizhouandthecityofChongqing,thoseworkingoutsiderespectivelyaccountfor65percent,,5,Hubei,,mostprovincesandautonomousregionshave,theimpactofruralpeopleworkingouts,,whilethephaveenteredtheurbanareas,withtheratiobetweenlargeandmedium-sizedcities,smallcitiesandtowns(includingthecounty-levelcities)andtheruralareasbeing4:4:,theruralpeopleemployedoutsidetheir,whilethefarming-relatednetincomeoftheruralpeoplecontinuedtodecline,theaverag,thegovernmentpolicyconcerningruralemploymentwastoencouragepeopletoflowlocally,namely"leavingfarmlandinsteadoftownshipsandenteringfactoriesinsteadofcities".Beginningfromthemid-1980s,however,thendustrialandcommercialoccupations,especiallyafterDengXiaopingmadestatementsduringhissouthChinainspectiontourinthespringof1992,thegovernmeuallyrecognize,,the3rdPlenarySessionofthe14thCPCCentralCommitteeissuedtheResolutionoftheCPCCentralCommitteeonSeveralIdguidedtograduallytransf,theMinistryofLaborissuedtheProvisionalReg-,asystembasedonemploymentpermissioncameintofor,thegeneralofficeoftheCPCCentralCommitteeissuedthe,aunifiedsystemofemploymentcertificateandtemporaryresidencepermitformigrantpopulationescopeofproduction,deve,rurallaborforceshouldbeguidedtoflowinanorderlymannerinkeep,thestate’sem’sCongressapprovedthe10thFive-yearPlanforNationalEconomicandSocialDevelopment,,thesystemofseparatingurbanandruralareasshouldbeabolishedinordertograduallyestablishanewurban-ruralrelationshipconsistentwiththesystemofmarketeconomy;theurbanresidenceregistrationsystemshouldbereformedinordertoformamechanismconducivetotheorderlyflowofurbanandruralpeople;theunreasonablerestrictionsonrurallaborforceseekingemploymentintheurbanareasshouldberemovedinordertoguidetherurallaborsurplustoflonfortnismshouldbebrokendown,thatexceptforafewmegacities,theemploymentsystembasedonurban-ruralseparationshouldbereformed,andtherestrictiveemploymentpoliciesinvariousregionsthatweresp,theStateCouncilapprovedthepublicationoftheProposalsoftheMinistryofPublicSecurityonPromo,permanentresidenceregistrationshouldbegrantedtothosefarmersandtheirdirectrelativeslivingwiththemintheurbanareasofthecounty-levelcities,thetownswherethecountygovernmentsarebasedandtheadministrativetownsaslongastheyhaownsshouldenjoythesamerightsandfulfillthesameobligationsasthelocalresidentsdoinareassuchasschooling,,anditwouldbeillegaltolevyurbancapacityexpansionfeeorothersimfarmersenteringtheurbanareasshouldbefairlytreated,rationallyguided,sonablerestrictionsandillegalleviesonthefarmerswhoentertheurbanareasfo,variouslaborintermediaryorganizationorkingintheurbanareassoastosafeguardtheirlegitimaterightsandinterests....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.太阳城集团娱乐app下载自治区商务厅2017年工作总结和2018年工作计划 ,sagriculture,thisreportadoptstheChinaAgriculturalandTradePolicySimulationModelwhichisbasedonourresearchgroupsimprovementontheCountryProjectionsandPolicyAnalysisSimulationModel(CPPA)(hereinafterreferredtoasCATP).CATP,asectorbalancemodel,ismainlyappliedtoassessingimpactoftradepolicyreformontheproduction,,functioningtheory,:(1).China,,itsurbanizationlevelwillberaisedby1%annuallyin2000-2030,withthelevelreaching60%;(2).%in2000-2005and7%in2005-2015;(3).::1in2005-2015;(4).Itsannualrealgrowthrateofsci-techinputintoagricultureisexpectedtobeat5%;(5)Itsannualrealgrowthra%;and(6)%..eralizationofdomesticagricultureproducemarketonthefutureofChinasmilkindustry,wehavedesignedthreevariationsofformulas,namely:BaselineFormula,’smilkindustryunderthestatusquopolicy,theWTOIFormulaintendstoprojecttheeffectundercurrenttermsreachedduringChina’,however,goesastepfurthertodrawapictureintheeventofChina’spossiblecommitmenttofull-scaletradeliberalizationina’saccessiontoWTOandtheloomingagriculturalinternationalizationwkproducts,along-rangeprospect,however,,%%,thoughtheadverseeffectoftradeliberalizationwillstillbefeltthereafterinoutputvalue,%%by2010undert%%smore,%asmilkproducts,cuttingdownthenetincomeoftheformer,,theWTOIandWTOIIformulaswoulddrivedowntheproducers’%%respectively,%%,%%,thisworseningtendencywouldbeputunder%,declineinproducers’priceswouldbringadvantagestoconsumerstothetuneof732millionyuan,%increaseofoverallconsumptionby2005,%%%%%,%%,%%,%%’,,thecorrespondingfiguresofthethreevariationsofformulaswouldbe931kilotons,,,,%%overtheBaselineFormulaby2005,%%%%,,%%overtheBaselineFormulaby2005,%%%%,,accessiontoWTOwillpushChinasmilkindustryforwardtoparticipatingineconomicglobalization,ngaspects:Firstly,comparedwiththedevelopedcountries,China’smilkindustryisstillintheinitialstagesofarasthetechnologicallevelofproductionandprocessingisconcerned,,importsofmilkproductsmayrisefromcountriesandregionswithlowerproductioncosts,thusbringingpressureonChina,directshockwavesfromimportsofliquidmilkwouldbemodest,however,,theincreasinglyevidenttendencyofglobalizationwouldbringaboutenormousexpansionopportunitiestoChina’illdriveupcostinthedevelopedcountri’smilkindustrybyattractingforeigncapital,’smilkindustrytoimproveproductiontechnology,equipment,,reorganizationandrestructuringofthesectorwillspeedup,bigenterprisegroupandnamebrandswillemergeandinterna,moreintensemarketcompetitionwouldpropeltransformationofmechanismandspeedup’smilkindustryinafundamentalmanner.(Excerptsfromresearchreport"ImplementationofWTOAgreement:AssessingEconomicImpactonChina’sMilkIndustry,"byChenGuoqiangetal.,theResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomy.)

                    澳门首席最新网址GeYanfeng,WangXuTianKaiResearchReportNo140,2002Overall,China’saccessiontotheWorldTradeOrganizationisnotonlyconducivetothelong-termdevelopm,however,WTOaccessionmeansfiercercompetitionandfurthermajorstructuraladjustmentofChina’,someoftheexistingsocialcontradictionsandproblemsmayaggravanoverallsenseisbeingmadeineconomicandsocialdevelopment,theinterestsofs,a"Non-ParetoImprovement",especiallythoseofvulnerablegroups,shouldbecomeabasicstartingpointoftheChinesegovernment’ansitionandespeciallytheissuesconcerningtheemployment,incomeandotherbasicrightsandinterestsofvulnerablegroups,theChinesegovernmenthasinrecentyearstakenmanyproactiv:--Inte,inlightofinadequatedomesticdemand,proactivefiscalmeasuresandprudentmonetarypolicies,diversetoolsweretakentoencouragethesmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesthatcouldcontributemoretoemploymentexpansion,whilefurtherreformmeasureswereintroducedtodevelopth,,anactivereemploymentprojectwaslaunchedtoensurethataconsiderablenumberoftheworkerslaidoffbythestate-ownedenterprisescouldfindjobsagainandthatmostofthemwereguaranteedabasicincomeandlife.--EmploymentshiftwasactivelypromotedtosolvetheprominentstructuralcontradictionofemploymentInlightofthestructuralcontradictionofemploymentbetweendifferentownerships,themostimportantpolicymeasu,theold-ageinsuranceandmedicalinsurancewereexpandedtothedomainofnon-publicownershipsoastoremovethefearsoftheworkersinth,anactiveexplorationwasmadeonhowtocompensatetheoldworkersfor"contributiondeduction"oyment,effortsweremadetoactivelydevelopnon-farmoccupationsandsmalltownssoa,thepermanentresidenc,thecentralgov,thegovernmentorganiz,theunemploymentinsurancesystemalsodevelopedfairlyfast.--,marketregulationmechanismwasestablishedandimprovedtominimizetheirrationalityintheareaofprimarydistr,personalincometaxandinteresttaxwereintroducedandtaxcollect,,andraisingthewagelevelsofthoseworkinginadministrativeo,,theminimumlivingguaranteesystemwaswidelyimplement,povertyreductioneffortswerealsointensified,andtheminimumlivinggu,someeffect,"twoguarantees"wereimplementedintheurbanareasandplayedanimportantroleinensuringthebasiclivingconditionsfortheworkerslaidoffbythestate-ownedenterprisesandalsofortheretiredpeople.--Activelyharmonizelabormanagementrelationsandstrengthentheprotectionofemployees’,Chinahaspromulgatedaser"LaborLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChina",the"RegulationsofthePeople’sRepublicofChinaConcerningtheHandlingofCorporateLaborDisputes",the"RegulationsontheProhibitionofUsingChildLabor",the"RegulationsonCollectiveContracts,theRegulationsonMinimumWages",the"DecisionoftheStateCouncilontheAmendmentoftheRegulationsoftheStateCouncilConcerningtheWorkingHoursofStaffandWorkers",andotherlawsandregulationsconcerningold-ageinsurance,medicalinsurance,industr,prehensivelypromotetherolesoftradeunionsinrepresentingandsafeguardingtherig,Chinaadoptedthe"TradeUnionLawofthePeople’sRepublic"in1992,andadoptedthe"ArticlesofAssociationoftheChineseTradeUnions"’sCongressadoptedthe"ResolutionontheAmendmentoftheTradeUnionLawofthePeople’sRepublicofChina",tradeunionshavebeenestablishedinmoreandmorenon-state-ownedenterprisesinadditiontostate-ownedones....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.2019年7月黑龙江省进出口月报(人民币) 皇家99亚洲真人RenXingzhouAgainstthebackgroundofChina’sentryintotheimportantTenthFive-Year-PlanperiodandtheWTO,itspoorsocialcreditsystemandageneralcreditdisequilibriumhavebecomemajorobstaclestothesustainableandhealthyeconomithenewcenturyToanswerthisquestion,itisnecessarytoanalyeditSystemTheimportanceofestablishingthesocialcreditsystemisdetermin,duringdecadesoftheplannedeconomicsysteminChina,,suchaswhattoproduce,whattosell,how,therelationsbetweenbanksandenterprisesarenotcreditrelations,,China’,thescaleofc,theoperationalmechanismofsocialcreditthatiscloselyrelatedtothecreditrelationsofthemarketeconomyalsobeginstoplayimportantroleandhasbecometh,themodernmarketeconomymayberegardedasacrediteconomy--thehigherthelevelofmarketdevelopment,,withapoorcreditsystem,Chinasuf,withalargeamountoflongoverduebankloansturningintobadaccounts,non-performingassetsofcommercialbankscontinuetoincrease;debtdefaultamongenterprisehascreatedbroadchain-debts;andcheating,,chain-debtsamongenterprisesin1998reachedRMB1100billion,lyaffectedthemarketorder,largelyincreasedthecostsofmarkettransaction,reducedthetransactionefficiency,directlyaffectedthehealthydevelopmentofthemarketsystem,andthush,asocialcreditsystemmustbeestablishedassoonaspossiblesoastostandardizethdingthedomesticdemand,,thecentralgovernmenthasswiftlychangeditsfocusofmacroadjustmentandcontroltotheexpansionofdomesticdemand,,theexpansionofdomesticdemand,thisisbecausepullingupeconomicgrowthundertheconditionsofabuyer’smarketviaexpansionofoveralldomesticc,thescaleofacountry’smarketwillmultiplyasaresultofcredittransactions,,manycountrieshavemadecontinuouseffortstoimprovetheircreditmanagementsystem,developednewcreditinstr,inthemid-1980s,annualsettlementsofcommercialbillsintheUnitedStateswerealrea,undertheconditionsofabuyer’smarket,creditsalesamongenterpriseshaveincreasedsignificantly,,thereisonlyasmallamountoftotalcredittransactionsinChinaatpresent,,toexpanddomesticdemandandadjustproductionstructureandproductmix,vationthroughbankloans,,duetoextensivelackofcredit,,falsepublicityanddeceivingauditingreports,thesecuritiesmarkethasrunintoacreditcrisis,affectingthe,toexpandmarketdemandforconsumptionandpullupeconomicgrowth,,theconsumptionstructureofChina’surbanresidentsatpresenthasshownsignificantupgradingtrend,withhouseholdconsumptionprioritiesshiftinggraduallytohousing,,itwilltakealongtimetoreachsuchaconsumptionlevelonlywiththeaccumulationofhouseholdcashsavings,,withtheabsenceofarelativelycompletepersonalcreditsysteminChina,,t,allt,toexpanddomesticdemand,pullupeconomicgrowthandachievethethirdstagestrategicobjectivesofmodernization,’sentryintotheWTOhavedet,uchmarketwillittakeAndhowshouldChinaparticipateininternationalcompetitionwithmoreadvantagesafteritsentryintoWTOThesequestionsaredirectlyrelatedtotheconstructionofChina’eriouslyhamperthecompetitivenessofChineseenterprisesintheinternationalmarket,resultinginsmallermarketshares,deterioratedcredibility,,thecreditdisorderinChinawillalsoworsenChina’sinvestmentenvironmentforforeigncapital,directlyaffecttheincreaseofinvestmentdemand,,thenormaloperationofthes,China’spresentmarketorderisapparentlyunabletomeetthedem,standardisationofmarketordercannotbeachievedsimplythroughoccasionalsuddeninandinstitutions,aswellasth’s“livinguptocredibility”,“maintainingreputation”and“keepingpromises”.Thenarrowcreditinthemodernmarketeconomyreferstotheabilitytohonourthepromiseoftheaccreditedpartytotheaccreditingpartyregardingpaymentorrepaymentmadeinaspecifiedtimeframe(alsoincludingtheabilitytohonourvariouseconomiccontracts).Basedonthenatureofaaccreditedparty,creditmaybedividedintopubliccredit,businesscreditandconsumercredit,,mosttransactionstaketheformofcredittransaction....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.《六盘水市市场化招商奖励办法(试行)》政策解读

                    LiShantong,,,generallyknownasthetertiarytrade,encompassesawidespectrumofactivitiesrangin,,spurredbytherapidgrowthoftheinformationtechnology(IT),anewindustrialrevolutionwassweepingacrossthedevelopedeconomies,bringingprofoundtransformationstotheservicetrade:(1)TheInternetande-commercehaveinvigoratedthistraditionalservicesector,makingitpossibletoofferitsproductsacrosstheworld;(2)Theflourishingknowledge-intensiveservicesectorembodiesthevalueofitsproductsinprovidingitsservicesandintellectualpropertyrights,includingcomputersoftware,informationprocessing,RD,testing,marketsurvey,humanresourcedevelopmentandcommercialorganization(managementconsultancyandemployeerecruitment).Intheyearsoftheplannedeconomy,policydiscriminationa,,fgrowthasfinance,insurance,accountingandlegalservicearebyfarnotsufficientinChinatomeettheneedsofeconomicdevelopment,,weshouldconsidertheexpansionofservicetradeasalong-term,yetpressingstrategictask.(1)rPlanperiod(2001-2005).Fromthepointofviewofvariousindustrialsectors,progressreliesonthedevelopmentoftheprimary,,rapi,%,,thusresultinginitsproportioninthenationaleconomyataround50%.Whenabuyer’smarkethastakenshape,gsectororanewgrowtharea,w,thebackwardservicetradehasretardedourcapi,financialinterme,especiallyincreditandsecurities,,,,nvestments,,t,humancapitalha,yetshortperiodofschoolingandweaklifelongeducation,thelaggingofservicetradehasrestrictedtheimprovementofinnovativecapabilities,nnovationandimperfecthnologysharedbymajorplayersincompetition,mostlyenterprisesintheprocessofinnovation,suchasbasictechnologicalknowledge,informationhighway,basicmanufacturingskillsandserviceslikeeconomic/,technologyinfrastructureisclosertothepracticalneedsofenterprises,"publicproduct"andco,rankingatthebottomofthe46countriesandregionsinthesurveyofinternationalcompetitivenessconducted,smarkethastakenshapeinChina,successfuldaheavydragonmarketexpansion.(2)Servicetradedevelop-omy,readjustmen,hwithdrawalofthestateeconomyandastrengthenedcontrolbystatesectoroverthenationaleconomyatthesametime....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.全国政协副秘书长 全国工商联副主席黄荣到开磷调研 ItcanbeseenfromCh,,theannualgrowthratejumpedover14percent,,theCentralGovernmenttookstrictmeasuresofmacro-regulationincludingadoptionofadministrativemeasuressu,theslowdownofgrowthduringthisperiodoftimewasanormalresponsetothemeasu,however,,theCentralGovernmenthasshiftedtoanexpansivefinancialandmonet,,andlargeamountsofproductioncapacitiesremainidle,,surplusofproductioncapacitieswhenithasjustreachedafairlyprimarystageofdevelopmentToanswerthisquestion,itisnecessaandfornon-governmentalinvestment--twomajorfactorsrestrictinggrowthofdomesticdemandDemandcanbedivided,firstofall,,theAsianfinancialcrisisin1997anditsseriousinfluenceuponChina’sexportshaveconsti,forinstance,China’,domesticdemandwillalwaysplayadecisiveroleintheeconomicgrowth,fromalongpointofview,theinfluenceofexportgrowthontheeconomicgrowthasawholewillbecomparativelysmaller(asshowninChart2).Domesticdemand,theretailofconsumergoodsinChina’,,,theslowdowninconsumptiondemandgrowthhasitsrootmainlyintheruralareas,asindicatedinTable1.淮安经济技术开发区管委会共襄体育盛会 助力二次跨越 Datasource:WorldInvestmentReportpub,theestablishmentofnewinvestmentfacilitiesandsecond,,forexample,(forecast),downby83percent,,ChinastoodoutamidtherecedingwaveofmergerandacquisitionbecauseitsFDIinflowhadalwaysbeenmainlyintheformofnewbusinessesta"newbusinessestablishment"wasthattheforeigncapitalinvestmentconstitutedanetincreaseofindustrialcapital,whichcouldrapidlyexpandproduction(service)capacitiesandcoulddirectlyincreasecommodity(service)’smarketwheresupplyfallsshortofdemand,thiswasundoubtedlythemostrationalmodeofFDIinflow,andalsoamarketbackgroundagainstw,ithasreflectedtheupgradingofenterprisequality,,’smarketwheresupplyanddemandisbyandlargeinbalance,mergerandacquisitionoughttograduall,China’sFDIinflowintheformof"newbusinessestablishment"ngtowarda"globalmanufacturingbase".AccordingtotheexpositionbyScholarJiangXiaojun(firstissueofManagementWorldin2003),transnationalcorporationsinthef,aMotorolasubsidiary,announcedthatitwouldestablishanewproductionbaseinChinainAugust2002,,MinoltaandNMVisualSystemsannouncedsimultaneouslythattheywouldexpandtheiroptorliquidcrystaldisplays(TFT-LCD),mCiudadJua’sfirstnewproductsinceitsestablishment--CompaqEvo–weremadeinitsplantinShanghai,"LGBeijingTowers"asChina’sofficecenter,andthiswasonlyoneofthecompany’,China’sF,thenewguidelinesconcerningthereformofgovernmentassetsmanagementsystemputforwardatthe16thNationalCongressoftheCPCwillnodoubthelpthegovernmentstoreleasetheirst"unifiedownershipandindistinctionbetweengovernmentadministrationandassetsmanagement"to"gradedownershipandseparationofgovernmentadministrationfromassetsmanagement"Forlong,ourgovernment-ownedcompanieshavefailedtosolvetwobasicissues:theunclearpropertyrightownershipandthe,areChina’sseveralhundredsofthousandsofgovernment-ownedcompaniesallownedbythecentralgovernmentandmanagedbythegovernmentsatvariouslevels,oraretheyownedbythegovernmentsatvariouslevelsAllthestipulationsinthepastemphasizedthatthestate-ownedassetswereownedinaunifiedwaybytheStateCouncilinthenameofthest,thecentralgovernmentwastheowner,,thecentralgovernmentmayhandoveranypoor-performingenterprisesatanytimetothelocalgovernmentsfor"gradedmanagement",andmaytakeoveranywell-performingenterprisesfromthelocalgovernmentsto"exerciseownershipright".Theearningsarisingfromthesellingofstockrightsbythelocalgovernmentsaresometimesplacedunderthecontrolofthelocalgovernments(forexamplethenon-listedcompanies),orsometimesplacedunderthecontrolofthecentralgovernment(forexamplethelistedcompanies).Withregardtothebadaccountsincurredtothefinancialinstitutionsofthelocalgovernments,thecentralgovernmentsometimessolvesthemontheirbehalf,andsometimesdeclaresthat"hewhohasthechildtakescareofhim"(forexamplethecaseoftheGuangdongInternationalTrustInvestmentCorporation).etermsofanenterprise’smergerandacquisitionandthenallofasuddenthegovernmentatthehigherlevelsaysthatthelocalgovernmenthasnorighttoselltheenterprise,thiswillundoubtedlybesomethingreallyannoying....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

                    YuBinZhangLiqunSincethebeginningofthisyear,theChineseeconomyhasmaintai,thegrowthofconsumerdemandhasbeensteady,thestructureofsupplyhasimproved,andth,thefollowingissuesconcerningeconomicoperationshouldreceivespecia’,theworldeconomicgrowthhasvisiblysloweddownd,makingtheec,,theimpactofclearlyincreaseduncertaintiesonChina’neweconomybubble,ersandinvestorsandboostedtherisk-avertingconsciousnessofthepeople,,itisstilldifficulttodeterminet,,invethrecovery,’,,thebadassetsoffinancial,’,msandtheirfoundationforrecoverywasnotsolid,’,,thew,,exportgrewonlyby7percentoverthesameperiodayearago,,,theproblemofglobaloverproduction,ernationalmarket,importandotherchannelsafterChina’,thesaggingworldeconomy,thesluggishstockmarketsandtheincreasedfinancialriskswilladversely,thewaragainstterrorismcouldaggravateregionalconflicts,increasetheuncertaintiesintheworldpoliticalandeconomicorder,andimpairChina’,weshouldalsoseethatthechangesintheinternationaleconomicenvironmenthavecreatedfavorableopportunitiesforChinatoattracttechno,overproductionandfiercercompetitionhavereducedthecostofChina’’sexcellentmomentumofeconomicdevelopmentanditsenormousmarketpotent,henergeticforeignenterprisesandimportingtechnologiesandequipmentforkeyareasandlinkswillbeofvitalimportancetoenhancingtheinternationalcompetitivenessoftheChineseindustries,narrowingtheirtechnologicalgapwithforeigncounterparts,meetingthech,therefore,Chinashouldworkoutstrategicplansfortheimport,thedigestionofmajortechnologiesandequipment,theestablishmentofjointventuresandthecooperationbytakingfulladvantageofthefavorableopportun,itshouldexpandim,whilethecontributiontoeconomicgrowthbyforeigndemandhasvisiblyweakened,theexpansi,thetotalamountoffixedassetinvestmentand,,,China’seconomicdeve,therearebothfacto,thefoundationisstillnotsolidforacontinuedexpansionofdomesticdemand....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.888永利集团平台棋牌宁夏 共话大数据 西部云基地迎来发展机遇 ZhangWenkuiInrecentyears,,thereformisfarfromcom"SeparationofGovernmentFunctionsfromEnterpriseManagement"aswellasthe"LinkingUps"andthe"Restructuring"DerivingfromGovernmentInstitutionalReformThegovernmentorganizationalreformwhichstartedin1998hascanceledthespecializedministries,whileenterprisesoriginallyaffiliateddirectlytovariousministrieshavealso"separatedgovernmentfunctionsfromenterprisemanagement""separationofgovernmentfunctionsandenterprisemanagement",however,theseenterpriseshadtobe"linkedup"toothergovernmentandPartyorgans,forafterall,thestate-ownedorthestate-controlledenterprisesarethecarriersofstateassets,soi"linkingups"andthestateassetmanagementsystemTherearethreetypesof"linkingup".Thefirsto"linkup"withtheMinistryofFinanceintermsofassets,andwiththenewlyestablishedCentralEnterpriseWorkingCommitteeortheOrganizatio"linkup",theyshouldfacethe"restructuring"consequenceoftheprevioustwotypesofenterprisesand"linkup",thegovernmenthasthusentrustedthefirsttwotypesofenterprisestomanagethethirdgroup,aswellastosuper,itis"detachment"ontheonehandand"linkingup",itissimilartothedistributingofenterprisemanagementauthorityamongspecializedandcomprehensivedepartmen"detachment",thegovernmentisfacedwit,thegovernmenttriestomaintainandincreasethevalue,itsupervisestheenterprisesandtheirmanagerialpersonnelthroughspecialinspectors(whohavebeenchangedtoexternalinspectors),theauthorizedmanagementcontractsincreasetheresponsibilitiesofandthepressuresontheenterprisesandtheirmanagers,andthes,thecontractedstate-ownedassetmanagement,itisdifficultforthespecialinspectorsandtheappointedaccountantst"restructuring"andtheenterpriseincentivemechanismInfact,the"restructuring"ment,ith,theremnantclaimingandcontrollingpowersofthestate-ownedenterpriseshav,after20years’reformandopeningup,thestate-ownedenterprisesarenolongerthe"purelystate-ownedenterprises",but"sharedenterpriseswithstateownership".,asthe"restructuring"dismantlesthestabilityofthecontrollingpowerandthedistributionsystemofthethirdgroupofenterprises,,the"restructured"state-ownedenterpriseswillsufferfrominsufficientdevelopmentdrive,"Dilution"and"Exit"oftheState-ownedStockEquitiesTheso-calledsystemreformistoreformthetraditionalstate-own,thesystemreformofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshasbeenimplementedwidelyinChina,whilethatofthesmallstatofthenewshareholders,thediverseequityownershipmayinclude"externaldiversificationofequityownership"and"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersmainlyconsistofinternalstaffandworkers,includingthemanagerialpersonnel,itbelongsto"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersaremainlycomposedofexternallegalandnaturalpersons,itbelongsto"externaldiversificationofequityownership".Intermsofthetotalsizeoftheequityandthetotalsizeofthestate-ownedequity,thereare"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Capitalexpansionthroughlistingandtargetedstockfloatingis"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution",whic,thesellingandtransferofthestate-ownedsharesbelongtothe"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Thestate-ownedenterprisescontrolledbytheCentralGovernmenthavemainlyachievedtheirdiversificationofequityownershipthrough"externaldiversification"and"diversificationthroughdilution".Whereas,mostofthestate-ownedenterprisesandthe"restructured"enterprisescontrolledbylocalgovernmentsrealizedtheirequitydiversificationthroughthecombinationof"externaldiversification"and"internaldiversification",andthecombinationof"diversificationthroughdilution"and"diversificationthroughexit".Thespecificwaysincludethefollowing:transferringorsellingthestate-ownedsharesorthestate-ownedassetstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkersofenterprises,privateenterprisesandexternalnaturalpersons;capitalexpansionbysellingstockstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkers;,manystate-ownedenterprisesand"restructured"enterprisesc,inthesystemreform,thereisanabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandstate-ownedassetsellingsystemthatistransparent,icesarereasonable,,thecasemayberuledas"lossofthestate-ownedassets".Inreality,"sharedstate-ownedenterprises"sincethereformandopeningup,themanagerialpersonnelandthestaffandworkersonlywishtoturnsuch"sharing",the"lossofthestate-ownedassets"orthedebtevasionintentionusuallybecomestheobstacletothe"exit","dilution"afundedsystemoveralongtime,andthestaffandworkersconsiderthattheyshouldbecompensatedthro"repay"thesocialsecuritydebt,"unauthorizedprivatization"Theabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandsellingsystemthatistransparent,competitiveandacceptabletothecreditorsmakes"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit""sharing"legitimateandclear,"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theirmanagerialpersonnelsplittheenterprisesandadopt"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theseparatedpartsofthe,somemanagerialpersonnelhavetransferredtheprofitsfromlargestate-ownedenterprisestotheirseparatedpartsbymeansofinternaltransaction,andthusquicklydrainedtheprofitsofthelargestate-ownedenterprise....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

                    WangMengkui,LuBaipuandLuZhongyuanResearchReportNo045,pmodernizationstrategy,Chinahascompletedthe,Chinaenteredanewstageofmovingtowarditsthird-stepstrateg,China’,,China’,,,,China’,thenationalwealthincreasedandtheoutputsofmainindustrialandagriculturalproductsrosedramatically,,commodityscarcitythathadlongassociatedwithChina’seconomicdevelopmentanditspeople’,China’seconomicdevelopmentha,thepercapit’,China’spercapitaGDP,slightlyhigherthantheaveragepercapitaGNP,eChineseeconomy:considerableeconomicstrength,whiletherelativelylowpercapitalevel(Chinaranked140thamongthe206economiesintheworldintermsofaveragepercapitaGNPin1999)’,theEng,thenumberofpoverty-strickenpeoplefellbyabigmarginfrom250millionin1978to30millionin2000,,,thoughstillintheinitialstage,,twohistoricalstrideshavebeenmadeinthelivelihoodofurbanandruralresidents:frompovertytohavingenoughfoodandclothing,,whichhasplaguedthecountryforcenturies,’sindustrialstructure,manufacturingstrengthandexportstructure,wecanconcludethatChin,whilethetotalamountofagriculturalproductshasincreasedrapidly,the,thesupplyofagriculturalproductsrealizedahistoricalchangethankstotheswiftdevelopmentofagriculturefromapro,,diversifiedoperationsreplacedtheunitarystructureofagriculturalproduction,,whilethetotalpopulationincreasedby300million,,,suchasrawmaterials,energyandtransport,thathadlongrestrainedChina’seconomicdevelopment,,,arelativelycompleteindustrialsystemisalreadyinplaceandinparticularthemanufacturingindustryisabletoprovideaconglygreatcontributionsandthehigh-andnew-techindustrieshavebecomeanimpor,whiletheexportsofagriculturalandotherprimaryproductshaveincreasedrapidly,,,,theindustrialstructureisobviouslymovingfromtheprimaryleveltotheadvancedlevel,fromaseriousimbalancetoabasicrationality,andfrommainlymeetingbasicneedfoundationforthebasiceconomicsystemandtheoperationsystemthatconformtoChina’,commercialization,industrializa;theevolutioniscontinuinginwhichthepublicownershipplaystheleadingroleandtheeconomiesofdiverseownershipsdevelopsimultaneously;,’smacro-regulatoryabilityisvisiblygreaterthankstotheestablishmentofamofthemarketeconomy,andthemodeofdistributionthatintegrateslaborwithosobroughta,thebasicroleofthemarketinresourceallocationhasbecomes,theindexofChina’,th....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.省国资委举办全省国资系统庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年文艺晚会 亚美集团电子娱乐ChengXiusheng,LuHuapu,,roadcapacityinChinesecitieshadbeenlow,theper-capitaroadar,roadconstructionbegantospeedup,,maintaininganannualgrowthofabout10%.Althoughthegrowthspeedwasfast,itstilllaggedfarbehindthe20%,vehiclesinChinesecitiesgrewatanannualrateofmorethan15%,andtheannualgrowthrateofprivateautomobileswasashighas28%.fhighefficiency,energysavingandlowemissionaretobedeveloped,,improvethecitystructureandregion,thefastgrowthofautomobileswouldgiverisetosuchproblemsasenvironmentalpollution,slowerdrivingspeed,increaseinthenumberoftrafficaccidents,thelowerlevelofpublictransportservice(lowerdrivingspeedandlowpunctuality),anddi,thepublicbustransport(includingtrolleybus)inbigcitieshasbeenshrinkingintermsofoperationefficiency,operationmanagement,,,,/1,,however,droppedfrom12-14kilometers/hourto5-10kilometers/hour,thenewlyin,ofallmeansoftransportforurbanresidents,theuseofpublicbusdroppedfrom30%toabout10%rivatecars,this,inreturn,resultedawiderareaoftrafficcongestioninciti’urbanizationandthewideruseofvehicles,urbantransportsystemwilloccupymoreland,consumelargeamountofe,China’scurrentresources(includinglandresources)reserveandenergystructure,environmentalcapacityandtheenvironmentalbearingcapaci,DirectoroftheTransportation,WaterSupplyandUrbanDevelopmentBureauoftheWorldBank,stressedthreemutuallysupplementaryprincipleswhenassessingthesustainabledevelopmentofurbantransport:sustainabilityofeconomyandfinance,,citiesindevelopedcountriesachievethesustainabledevelopmentofurbantransportfromthefollowingtwoaspects:comprehensiveplanningoftransportati’snationalconditionsthatChinesecitiesmustmakegreateffortstodeveloppublictranspordevelopmentofacitycouldbeachievedandwhetherwideruseofautomobilesa,landisinshortsupply,populationdensityishigh,therefore,ntprincipleofgivingprioritytopublictransportforurbanpassengertransportation,andthispolicywasclearlystipulatedinseveralStateCouncildocuments,itiesandintheprocessofurbantransportplanning,con,includingpriorityincapital,planningandconstruction,orintermsofthelong-termdevelopmentstrategyoftheurbantransportation,priorityisgiventoconstructingthefasttracktransportsystem,ictransportsystemintermsoftimeandspace,toincreaseitsspeed,shortentimespentonroadandimprovethetranspor,,inHongKong,carsarenotallowedtomakerightturnsduringrushhoursandonlypublicbuseshavetheprivilegeofmakingrightturns(inHongKong,peopledriveonbenefit).Intermsofspacepriority,specialla,Japan,specialpublicbuslanesaresetalongtheroa,thecityisplanningtoconstructelevatedpublictransportroadsinthecityareasothatthespeedofgroundpublicbusescouldbeincreasedto20km/hfrom10km/emisbasedonthepublictransportsysteminCuritiba,,ithasthefeaturesoflarge-capacitytracktransportsystem,specialroadrights,,italsohastheflexiblecharacteristicsoftheconventionalpublictranspsystem,itisanewandhighlyefficientmodeofpublictransportsolutionwithlowcost,shortconstructionperiod,"groundsubway"nBrazilCuritiba,locatedinsouthernBrazil,(300carsper1,000residents).Thetransportforsu,,thecityhopedtodevelopamodern,,,thelandreservedfovelopedatplacesnearthepublictransportsystem,,designersandplannerspaidspecialattentiontothepublicbusstops(crystaltube-shapedplasticbusstops),whichwereconstructedatthesameheightofthebottomofpublicbus(800mmtotheground).,passengerscouldbuyticketsfirstattheplatforms,andthencou,inordertoreducethestoptime,theleaningpassagefrompublicbuscouldbeextendedtotheplatformwhenthebusstops,sothatp,CuritibafinallydevelopeditsuniqueMetrobussystem....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,安康市工业和信息化局 LinJiabinResearchReportNo139,2003Underthepowerfulpushofasustainedfasteconomicgrowth,,thePearlRiverDeltaandtheBeijing-Tianjin-Tangshanregion,,inter-regionalconflictsofinterestsorfrictionsofinterestswilloccurinanunprecedente’:Firstly,urbandevelopmentanditsrad,undertheexistingpersonnelsystem,thepromotionofofficialsdep"performance"has,toaverylargeextent,,developmentofurbanizationrequiresthelocalgovernmentstoestablishallkindsofinfranandshiftingtroublesontoothers,thusjeopardizingthehealt’spatternof"administrativedivisioneconomies"or"blockeconomies"arisingfromsystemfactorsiss,establishinganeffectization,competitionbetweendifferentregionstobecomethe"dragonhead"(leader)hasledtoseriousoverlappingofinfrastructure,,becauseofdisorderlyconstructionanduncoordinatedplanning,allpor,manyporedNingbo’,theYantianPortinShenzhen,theGaolanPortinZhuhaiandtheZhongshanPort,,thereareseveralairports,respectivelyinGuangzhou,,whichclaimstobethemostmoderninChina,,Suzhou,dWuxia,,manycitiesandcountiesarelocatedinthesamecity(whichmeansonecityhousesbothacitygovernmentandacountygovernment).Butthetwogovernmentsinonecityc,overlappedconstructionofmunicipalfacilitiessuchastelevisiontowers,waterplantsandwatersupplynetworksisverycommon(seetheReportontheAdjustmentofSomeProvincially-controlledCityAdministrativeDivisionsinOurProvincedeliveredbyJiYongshiatameetingoftheStandingCommitteeofthePeople’sCongressofJiangsuProvinceonJanuary9,2001).’stroublesontoothersAseverylocalgovernmenthasthemotivetomaximizeitsowneconomicdevelopmentwithaminimumcost,itgivesnoconsiderationtothenegativeimpactsonneighbori,somecitiestakeswaterf,itisacommonphenomenonthat"chamberpotsarewashedattheupper-streamandriceiswashedatthedown-stream".IntheplacewhereShanghaiandZhejiangadjoin,eachsidebuiltathermalpowerplantintheir"domains",nomorethan50kilometersawayfromeachother,tspowersystemonlytoserveitsownprovinceandontheotherhan,itisalsoacommonplacethatthelocalgovernmentsconcernmicdevelopmenttendtobeenthusiasticaboutbuildingsuchhighwaysontheirownside,whilethoseregionsthatfeartrans-regionalhighwayscanhelptheirn,someregionstryeverypossiblemeanstodelaytheconstructionalhighways....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

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                    华夏生活 : XiaBin,oansofallfinancialinstitutionsstoodatRMB1,589billionasoftheendofJune2003,,049billion,omyHowtodealwiththerelationshipbetweenmonetarypolicyandexchangepolicyToanswerthesequestions,firstwemhina’snationaleconomyinashortperiodoftime,butitdidnothaveremarkaduetosystemreform,,,ansionandinvestmentinfixedassetshavebeenaccelerated,especiallyinvestmentininfrastructure,suchasairports,subways,roads,bridges,telecommunications,electricpower,overnmentsatvariouslevels."Fivetypesofsmallenterprises"(includingsmallcoalmine,paper-making,cement,textileandchemicalfertilizerfactories),theindustrialstructureofnewly-establishedenterprisesarebasicallythesamewhilerepetitioninconstructionoccurs,,thedownwardtrendofinterestrate,andtheanticipationofrenminbi,theerroraccountofChina’sbalanceofintern$time,amountingtoaboutUS$tutions,Chinabyvariousways,whichhavepromotedChina’’sandintensifymarketingmanagement,thefollowingnewsituationoccurs:First,underthepressureofreducingtherateofnon-performanceloans,somegrass-rootsbranchesoffourstate-ownedbanks(referredtotheIndustrialandCommercialBankofChina,BankofChina,AgriculturalBankofChina,andChinaConstructionBank)grantingofloanswhichmainlyarelo,fourlargebankshadmisgivingsinprovidingloanstosmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(SMEs),withthedevelopmentofbillmarket,alffourlargebanksaboutloanrisks,,thediscountingvalueofcommercialbillsamountedtoRMB2,,,,,,,,theemergenceofloanresale,somebankstooksomemeasuresinsidebanks,suchasauthorizingmoreprivilegestograss-rootsbranches,downgradingthereserverationofsubordinatebrancheswithinbankingsystemandencouraginggrass-rootsbranchestoprovideloansinitiativelyandinareliableway....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

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                    乞伏乾归:XieFuzhan,LiuShijin,LuZhongyuan,ZhangLiqunDRCTaskForceEconomicperspectivesNo10,2004Inouranalysisoftheeconomicsituationinthefirsthalfof2002,weconcludedthatth’sinherentself-growthabilityhadbeenstabilizedatarelativelyhighlevel,’seconomicgrowthisexpectedtoreachorexceed8percent,roeconomicpolicies,theemphasisofpoliciesandtheintensityofexpansionshouldbeproperlyadjustedsothatmoreeffortscanbedevotedtoso,withtheaccelerationofnon-governmentalinvestment,theupgradingofpersonalconsumptionandth,leadingmacroeconomicindicatorshavedemonstratedfurtherimprovementontopoflastyear’,industrialaddedvalue,investmentinfixedassets,foreigntrade,actualforeigncapitalutilizationandcurrencysupply(M1M2),theindustrialgrowt()wererelativelylowandsomeofthegrowthelementsbytheendoflastyearmaybetransferredtothebeginningofthisyear,theongoin,thenon-governmentalinvestmentnationwide(includingtheinvestmentbythejoint-stockeconomicsector,thecollectiveeconomicsector,theprivateeconomicsectorandthecooperativeeconomicsectorbutexcludingtheinvestmentbyforeignersandthosefromHongKong,MacaoandTaiwan),th,thegrowt,theproportionofthenon-go,,,whilethatbythenon-state-ownedeconomicsector(includingforeigninvestors),theinvestmentdesireofthenon-state-owne,theinvestorsfromthenon-state-ownedeconomicsector,includingdomesticnon-governmentalinvestorsandforeigninvestors,nt’sm1999to2002,,internter,duringthe2000-2002period,thepro-investmentm,theinvest,;,;,;self-raisedfundsroseby60percent,;,mentofthestate-ownedeconomicsector,theaccelerateddevelopmentoftheprivateeconomicsectorandthegradualimprovementofthemarketorderandtheenvironmentforfinancingandinvestment,thecontributionofmarketfactorssuchasenterpriseearnings,prices,expectations,self-financedinvestmentandforeigncapitalutilizationtotheinvestmentgrowthhasbeenconstantlyincreasedandthattngelcoeffic,,andsohasthegrowthofhousing,transportation,,thehousingspaceofurbanresidentsincreasedby22percent,theirhouseholdcomputersincreasedbysixfold,,,,refrigeratorsincreasedby74percentandwashingmachinesincreasedby45percent....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1Theself-growthabilitymentionedherereferstotheeconomicgrowthpromotedbyproduction,investmentandconsumptionspontaneouslyofmarketentities,whichisdifferentfromthatpromotedbydirectgovernmentinvestment.亚美集团电子娱乐FengFeiResearchReportNo181,2002Thereformofthecurrentgovernmentcontrolledelectricalpowersupplysystemandtheestablishmentofamodernelectricalpowersupplysupervisionsystemthatconformstothereformtowardsmarketizationofthepowerindustryandrelevantgeneralinternationalpracticeisvitaltotheearlyestablishmentandeffectivefunctioningofthemarketmechanismofthepowerindustry,theeffectivemonitoringandaccelerationofthereformsinasmoothandorderlymanner,andthere,thesuccessorfailureofthepowerindustryreformdepe,however,thatthecurrentrefor—atthestateandregionallevels,withoutgivingsufficientconsiderationinitsdivisionofpor,,sincetheprovincialmarketsaredifficulttobecompressedwithinashortperiodoftime,theregionalsupervisorybodiesmaybecomeineffectiveastheyarefarawayfromtheprovincialmarketsandthereuponassumesafartoolargeareaofsupervision,leaving,inreality,,boththesupervisorybodiesandvariousma,atthebeginningofthereform,rtheregionalsupervisorybodies,th,the"weakimpact"ofthesebodiesonprovincialmarketsmaylikelypushtheprocessofcultivatingtheregionalelectricalpowermarketthroughthesetti,manycountrieshaveadoptedsystemreformsthatmainlyincludedparallelintroductionofmarketmechanismandrgsupervision(mainlyovereconomicregulations),introducingmaximummarketcompetitionmechanismintotheelectricalpowerindustry,adoptingtheconceptoflimitedscopeofsupervision(concentratingonsupervisionoverpowergridmonopolyofelectricalpowertransmissionanddistribution),settingthemainobjectiveofsupervisionasfacilitatingafullcompetitionamongeligibleelements,,themarketmechanismswillbeabletoplaytheirrolesinresourceallocation,,,theestablishmentofelectricalpowersupervisorybodiesandthedeterminationontheirte,,whenthemarketmechanismsarestilldeveloping,orwhentheyarestillimmature,,thesupervisorymechanismshouldbedynamic,astherearewidedifferencesbetweenprojectionsduringthmentTheidealelectricalpowermarketstructureandcompetitionmechanisms(withoutreferringtocompetitioninthesalesmarketofelectricalpowerforthetimebeing,soastocorrespondtothecurrentreformplan)mayhavethefollowingfeatures:(1)Themarketoperationmechanisms:Appropriateandeffectivecompetitionexistsinthepowergenerationmarket,andpricingforelectriributiongrids,andthegovernmentcontrolsthepricingoftransmissionanddistributionprices.(2)Themarketstructure:Nosingleelectricalpowerproducerhasdominatinginfluenceinthemarketandallentitiesmaintaintheirrespectivefairshare,allelectricalpowerproducercompaniesareindependentcompetitorsandhave/acquirediversifiedstockequitystructures.(3)Themarketstate:Aunifiedmarketwithoptimumcompetitionhastakenformandthesituationofattemptedself-sustainedbalanceofelectricalpowersupplyofindividualprovinceshasundergonefundamentalchange,nationalpowermarkethasalsogrownintoanappropriatescale,tionalscale;an,theremaybetwoapproachestosetupthepowersupervisionbody:Oneisathree-tierstructure,namely,thepowersupervisionmechanismconsistedofthreelevelsincludingthestate,regionsandcertainprovinces(ormunicipalitiesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernmentorautonomousregions).Theotherisatwo-tierstructure,namely,thesupervisionmechanismconsistedofonlytwounitsatthestateandregionallevels,leavingnosimilarunitsattheprovinciallevel....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1Certainly,thismarketinconceptislimitedtothemarketofcompetingpowerproducers,aswellastheelectricalpowersalesmarkettobesetupgraduallyinfuture.   2019-11-14 16:30:05

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                    神木隆之介:ZhangWenkuiResearchReportNo97,’s,tosolvetheproblemsofheavydebtofChina’sstate-ownedenterprises(SOEs)andtheresultanthugeamountsofnon-performingassetsofnationalbanks,someprogramswereputforwardforrestructuringthedebtsofbanksandenterprises,includingthedebt-to-equityswapprogramwithgreatinfluence(byZhouXiaochuanetal.,1994).Afterafewyearsofdeliberation,thedebt-to-equityswapprogramwasacceptedbythed,aninvestmentdepartmentwastobesetupineachcommercialbank,whatisactuallyadoptedist(AMCs)receivere-loansfromthecentralbankandpurchasethecreditor’srightstoenterprisesatfacevaluefromrespectivecommercialbanks,andtransferthemintoequityofenterprises,finally,alltheAMCsshallexi,thatistosay,theyshouldwithin10yearsaccomplishthe,thedebt-,therelevantdepartmentsrecommended601enterprisesforcarryingoutdebt-to-equityswaps,,themajorityoftherecommendedenterpriseshadconclu,thegeneralenterprisesurveyteamoftheStateStatisticsBureauconductedanoverallsurveyof504enterprisesthathadsignedofficialandframeworkagreementswithAMCs,itshowsthatinthefirstyear(2000)ofdebt-to-equityswaps,theenterprisesinvolvedintheswapwouldligh,aftercompletingthedebt-to-equityswap,,,enterprisesexpectedtogainprofitin2000amountedto439,,ofwhich,ownbyastilllargermargininsomelocalities,takeBeijingforanexample,in2000therewere17SOEsthatconcludedadebt-to-equityswapagreementwithAMCs,andaftercompletionofdebt-to-equityswap,,andlikewise,mosto,thedebtislibereachedin10yearsandthatthedebt-to-equityswappolicyisadvancingtowardstheexpectedgoalAsamatteroffact,theimmediateemergenceofprofitwasbasicallynotbroughtaboutbythedeep-rootedchangeintheenterprises,instead,themajorpartofprofitwasattributedtothechangeintheirfinancialstructure,inotherwords,lessdebtandinterestpaymenthasmadetheirbookslook"better"toanyfundamentalchangeintheirsituation,whatismoreimportantthanthefinancialstructureisthechangeinthestructuresofoperation,propertyrightsandgovernance(ZhangWenkui,1999).Inordertodeterminewhethertheimplementationofthedebt-to-equityswappolicyisconducivetoreachingtheexpectedgoal,wecannotbutemofenterprisesisworthyofourattention,becauseitnotonlyinvolveswhethertherestructuredenterprisesareabletofulfilltheirdebtobligationinthefuture,butalsohasabearingonwhethertheywillestablishasoundmechanisminafartherfutureunderwhichalltherespoisofvitalimportancetothesuccessofdebtrestructuringwhileanuncturedenterprisesinHungaryandPoland,itwasnotdtheinternalsituationoftheindebtedenterprise,thecreditorswereusuallyputintothepositionoffigureheads,therefore,notmuchimprovementwasmadeinthebusinessperformanceofmostdebt-restructuredenterprises(ZhangChunlin,1999).China’sdebt-to-equityswappolic,andtheinterestandbehavior-orientationofthenewshareholderwillexertanimpactonthegovernancestructureoftheenterprise,andthisisve:InternationalPerspectiveandTheoreticalProbeModerncapitalstructuretheoriesbelievethatequitycapitalanddebtcapitalplaydifferentrolesinenterprises,andanappropriatecapitalstructureisbeneficialtobot,however,thecapitalstructuredeviatesfromthereasonablelimitwithtoohighadebtratio,,debtrestructuringisusuallymoreacceptabletoallthepartiesconcernedthanliquidationafterbankruptcy....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-14


                    蔡金碧:ChinaEntrepreneurSurveySystemResearchReportNo212,2001TheChineseentrepreneurssurvey2001wasorganizedbytheChineseEntrepreneur,000questionnaireswereissuedinmid-August2001,ofwhich4,’s31provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesdirectlyunderthecentralgovernment,exceptHongKong,,state-owedandnon-state-ownedenterprisesrespectivelyaccountedfor31percentand69percent,andthelarge,,,generalmanagers,chiefexecutiveofficers,nincl,thesurveycoveredcorporatesystemchange,economicrestructuring,marketeconomicorderregulationandChina’wnturnintheUnitedStatesandJapan,China’’smacroeconomicperform,however,entrepreneursbelievedthatproblemssuchassaggingeffectivedemandandfinancingrestraintswerestillimpedingthedevelopmentofenterprisesandthatteadyprog’songoingeconomicrestructuringwastodevelophigh-anditutedthekeytocopingwithChina’sWTOacces,theybelievedthatcorporategovernanceneededfurtherimprovementandhopedthatthegovernmentcouldfurtherregulatemarketeconomicorder,,China’,however,thedemandforChina’sexportswa,ingeneral,,“normal”.“rathercool”or“toocool”.Thisproportionisroughlyidenticalwiththatinlastyear’ssurvey,’smacroeconomicoperationthisyearhaslargelymaintainedthegooddevelopmenttrendsince2000(seethefollowingfigure).Figure1ProportionofEntrepreneursBelievingMacroeconomicOperationWas“RatherCool”or“TooCool”inRecentYears   2019-11-14


                    谭方平:,2002Inrecentyears,alongwiththeexpansionoftheroleofprivateenterprisesinlocaleconomicdevelopment,localgovernmentsaregivingmoreandmoreattentiontothectiveprotectionofthelegitimaterightsandinterestsofprivateenterpr,eventsofencroachmentonthelegitimaterightsandinterestsofprivateenterprisesremaincommonandserious,,problemsrelatingtotheprotectionofthelegitimaterightsandinterestsofprivateenterprisesmainlytakethefollowingforms::DifficultmanagementafterpurchaseBasedontheinvestigationofrelevantdepartmentsincludingtheFederationofIndustryandCommerceofAnhuiProvince,inSeptember1998,HaitianGroup,aprivateenterpriseinMa,HaitianGroupwastobuyoverMaAnShanRubberPlant,abankruptenterprise,,,butmostofthemdidnotsinouncements,itstoppedissuingwagesfortheseworkersandstaffsinceJunethenextyear,resultingina,thecompanyreissuedthewagesoftheabsentworkersandstaffaccordingtotheopinionofthecoordina,astheworkersandstaffdidnotchangetheir"bigpot"mindset,theconfrontationalmooddidnotsubside,,theworkersandstaffappealedto,theChemicalIndustryBureauofthecityinformedHaitianGroupinwriting,askingHaitianGrouptowithdrawfromHaixiangCompany,,theChemicalIndustryBureau,backedupbythecityleaders,appealedtothecou,:Privateenterprises’,duetovariousconstrainingfactors,privateenterprise,butonceprivateenterpriseswanttopurchasethem,enbeinglaidoff,butoncetheirenterprisesaretobepurchasedbyormergedwithprivateenterprises,theybecomeprovocativeandtouchy,,thegovernmentusuallytriestomaintainst:GovernmentconstructionprojectstrangledaprivateenterpriseinGuiyangGuiyangXinghuaFerroalloyPlantisaprivate,thesittingofthenewGuiyangairportin,atthespecialmeetingpresidedoverbyavicemayor(concurrentdeputycommanderfortheconstructionoftheLongdongbaoAirport)ofGuiyang,,XinghuaFerroalloyPlantmustcompleteitsmovebeforeMarch1996;aspecialworkinggroupforthemovingwouldbeestablishedtooverseetheimplementation;andasXinghuaFerroalloyPlantenjoyedgoodeconomicresults,,theworkinggroupforthemovingrelayedtheideaofthespecialmeetingtoXinghuaFerroalloyPlant,(1995)ofHuaxiDistrictG,XinghuaFerroalloyPlantimmediatelystoppedbusinessactivitiesands,theplantconductedassetassessmentaccordingtolegalprocedures,formulatedthebudgetreportforreorgani,aftertheplantstoppedproduction,ibilityamongthem,,themovingfeeswereembezzledbycertainleadersforrenovatingbuildingsinthe,theplantreportedtotheprovincialgovernmentofGuizhouandobtai,,,,,themanagementofXinghuaFebur,theairportthenclaimedthatthesiteoftheplantwaswithintheclearancezoneoftheairportandits,theheadofenvironmentalprotectionbureauofHuaxiDistrictGovernmentofGuiyangCitycametotheplantwithsomeotherpeopleandannou,leadingtodirecteconomiclossesofoverRMB400,,theplantisstilltr:Thiscase,theimportantdecisiontomovetheplantfromitsexitingsite,whichrelatedtoenterprisesurvival,roup"relayedtheideaofthespecialmeeting"toitandwas"demandedtoimplementaccordingtotherequirementscontainedinthedocument".Second,aftertheenterprisestoppedproduction,thedepartmentsconcerneddidnottrytosolveitsactualproblems,,whentheenterprisehadtoresumeproductiontosaveitselffouryearsafterproductionstopped,apieceofhand-writtenpaperofthechiefofthedistrictenvironmentalprotectwithforeigninvestment,coulditbetreatedinthatwayComparedwiththesetwotypesofenterprises,privateenterprisesapparentlycouldnotnegotiatewithgovernmentdepartmentsontheirexistingstatus,andtheirrightsandinterestsarenothinginfrontofgovernmentdocuments....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,   2019-11-13


                    杨恭如:ChenXiaohong,ZhangWenkuiLiZhaoxiResearchReportNo187,,thereformofthestateassetmanagementsystemisanimportantissuecloselylinkedtothereformofthestate-ownedenterprises,foritinvolvessuchspecificiss,theThirdPlenarySessionofthe14thCPCCentralCommitteealsolaiddownthestateassetmanagementprinciple,namely,the"centralizedstate-ownership,variouslevelsofgovernmentsupervisionandautomaticenterprisemanagement".TheFourthPlenarySessionofthe15thCPCCentralCommitteefurtherstipulatedthesixteen-wordprincipleforstateassetmanagementsystem,namely,"stateownership,variouslevelsofmanagement,dividedsupervisionresponsibilitiesandauthorizedmanagement",andgavelocalgovernmentsmorepowerinthere,manymajorproblemsofthestateassetmanagementsystem,includingthebasicorientationandspecificpolicymanagement,especnagementsystem,,itremainsquiteambiguousinissuessuchasthemeaningofauthorization,sesdispersedinvariousgovernmentdepartments,enterprisesfeelatlossastowhomtoturntowhenimplementingdecisionsthatneedapprovalfromagensesandholdrelevantresponsibilities,theydonothavetheownershiprightsinlegaltermsand,therefore,,interferenceof"shareholders"thatbypasstheirimmediateleadersand"insidercontrol".Thisreportwillputforwardsomeviewsandproposalsontherelationshipforrightsforstate-ownedassets,SystemWheretheCeteassetswhileadheringto"state-ownership"lgovernmentsoverstateassetsisabasicissuerelated"state-ownershipandvariouslevelsofmanagement"andformulatenewstipulationson"authorizedmanagement""variouslevelsofmanagement"shouldbechangedinto"variouslevelsofownership".Webelievethatalthoughtheemergenceofthesystemandtheprincipleof"state-ownershipandvariouslevelsofmanagement"havetheirhistoricalrationale,,therefore,toadjustanddefinetheownershiprightsofthecentralandlocalgovernmentinvestors.·Chinahasalreadyrecognizedthepubliclyacknowledgedbasicprincipleofthemarketeconomicsystemof"whoeverinvestsowns"andhassetupcorrespondinglegalsystem,whichdeviatesfromtheprinciplethatgivesnoregardtoinvestorsbutcentralization;·Variouslevelsofgovernmentsalreadypossesstheownershiprightsatleastoverenterprisesinvestedbythecurrentlevelsofgovernmentsoroverthestate-ownedenterpriseswhosemanagementrightshavelongbeendelegatedtothecurrentlevelsofgovernmentsbythehigherlevelsofgovernments;therefore,anyeffortthatrefusestoadmittheexistingeconomicandlegalrelationsisapttoleadtoshort-termacts;·China’spublicfinancesystemisineffectahierarchicalsystemandwillbefurtherdevelopedandperfectedwiththecompletionofChina’staxationandpublicfinancetransferpaymentsystem;thestate-ownedenterpriseswith"centralizedownership"inthepastshouldbetrulydividedintothestate-owned(centralgovernmentowned)enterprises,localpublic-ownedenterprises(ormaybecalledlocalstate-ownedenterprisesinconsiderationofhistoricalcontinuity)orstateandlocalgovernmentjointlyownedenterprisesbasedontheirrespectiveshares;·Incountriesofmarketeconomy,state-ownedenterprisesorlocalpublic-ownedenterprisesaregenerallycalledpublicenterprisesorpublicinstitutionsownedbyautonomousentities;thepublic-ownedenterprisesofstateautonomousentitiesarethestate-ownedenterprisesandthepublicly-ownedenterpr,evenifitisjustviewedfromtheimplementationlevel,therearestillproblemsifthe"variouslevelsofownership",thereistheproblemofambiguoustargetsof"variouslevelsofownership".Shouldalllocalgovernment-financedenterprisesorenterpriseswhosemanagementrightsaredelegateddownbythecentralgovernmenttolocalgovernmentsbeownedbythelatterWhatarethebasisandconditionsfordoingsoThedelegationofpowerinthepastwasbasedonpreconditionsof"variouslevelsofmanagement"butnotof"variouslevelsofownership".Moreimportantly,thestate"centralizedownership"systeminthepastwasrelatedtotheentirestateeconomicsystems,especiallythepublicfinance,"centralizedownership"system,itisnecessar"delegated"enterprisescloselylinkedtothenationaleconomy,correspondingresponsibilitiesofvariousparties,theirrelationswithmajorenterprisereformpolicies,(),thecompletionofthehierarchicalpublicfinancesystemandtheprocesstoimprovethecorrespondingtaxationsystem....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-12


                    张成:亚美集团电子娱乐Notes:(1),(3),(2),(5)and(7)representpercentagevs.(1);(4),(6)and(8)representproportionvs.(2).Datasources:STATEMENTOFBALANCEOFPAYMENTSbySAFEDuringthe1982-1999period,foreigncapitalreceiptsandpayments(balance),,%,China’scapitalsinflowisinnetterms,andthehugesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpay,FDIinChinarepresentsthelargestelementforitssurplus,,accountingfor81%,FDIisnotonlythegreatestelementforthesurplusofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsbutalsothebaseforasustainedsurplusofFDIforalongtime,contributingagreatdealtothegeneralsurplusofChina,anetincreaseisshowninChinasoverseasissuanceofequitysecuritiesandbonds,indi,duringthe1982-1999periodthenetin,%ofthesurplusofforeigncapitals,an,however,adeficitwasrecordedduringthe1996-1999period,mainlyduetoadrasticfallinthesurplusofliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentinthatperiod,,therefore,thatliabilitiesofsecuritiesinvestmentasonesourceofforeigncapitalhavealimitedstimulativeroleinachievi,%ofthebalanceofallforeigncapitalreceiptsandpayments,%ofthetotalsurplusinthebalanceofcapitalreceiptsandpayments,(-),however,,thesurplusofotherinv%ofthatofforeigncapitalsandbeingoneofthethreegr,anditspercentageinthesurplusofforeigncapitalsreducedto45%.Andduringthe1996-1999periodthesurplusofliabilitiesismuchsmallerthanthesurplusofassetsinsize,withitspercentageinthebalanceofforeigncapitalreceiptsandpaymentsfallingto5-6%.Thatmeans,duringtheabove-mentionedtwoperiods,theroleofo,becauseotherinvestmentasaformofintroducingforeigncapitalisusuallysmallerthantheincreaseofassetsinsize,,otherinvestmentisanuncertainfactoraffectingthebalanceofforeigncapitalsandcapitalaccountswhenforeigncapitals(mainlytrade-relatedcredits)areutilizedinsuchform,anditsdrasticdecreaseintimesofuncertaineconomicgrowthmorethanoftengivesrisetoadeficitinotherinvestmentreceiptsandpaymentsandeveninthebalanceofcapitalaccounts....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-12


                    周航宇:LongGuoqiangInternationalpivotalportsareofgreatsignificancetotheadvanceoftheinternationalcompetitivenessofacountry’’sShanghaiandShenzhenPortshavealreadybecometwooftheworld’,Chinashouldacceleratethereformofnationaltrade,internation,thedevel,thevolumeoffreighthandledbytheworld’,thefreighthandledbytheworld’slargestports(Rotterdam,theNetherlandsin1985andHongKongin2000)majorinternationalshippingroutesandarenotedforhighefficiency,ansitfreighttheyhand,internationalpivotalportsareplayinganincreasinglyimportantr,thegovernmentsofsomecountriesandregionsha,HongKong,Singapore,PusanandKaohsiunghavebecometheworld’,,,’sportsismainlyattributedtothedevelopmentofitsowntrade,,SingaporeandKaohsiungrespectivelyaccountsfor40percent,,,infaceofanincreasinglyintenseinternationalcompetition,de,developinginternationalpivotalportsisarequirementofincreasingChina’’ssixthlargestexportcountry,andthecompetitiveadvantageincostandpricewillcontinuetobethemaincompetitivenessofChina’ofexitforthecontainersintheregionofthePearlRiverdelta,,ithelpsincreasethecompetitivenessofChina’,astheefficiencyofdomesticportsincustomsclearanceisnothigh,,asmostofthisregion’sexportisintheformofprocessingtrade,’simportisthroughHongKong,higherimportcostalsoweakensthecompetitivenessoftheregion’,theimbalanceinimportandexp,becauseofthesmallamountofinternationaltransitbusiness,thecargos’etworegionsoftheYangtzeRiverdeltaandthePearlRiverdelta,,developinginternationalpivotaluthalfofChina’,theefficiencyofcustomsclearancehasbecomeanimportantaspectwhenforeignbusinessmenevaluateChina’encyofChina’,Shanghaicarriedoutaexperimentreformcalled"greatcustomsclearance".Asaresultoftheexperiment,,suchasIntel,indicatedthattheywouldnotonlyexpandtheirproductioninvestmentinShanghai,nalpivotalports,suchmeasureswilldefinitelyimprovethecountry’,developinginternationalpivotalportsisarequirementforincreasingtheaddedvalueofChina’ofChina’stotalexport,andincreasingtheaddedvalueoftheprocessingtradeisanimportantwaytofurther,thankstothemasstransferoftheITandothermanufacturingindustriestoChina,electromechanicalproductsmanufacturinghasbecomethefast-growingandlargestsectorintheexportofChina’,theprocessingtradeofelectromechanicalproductshassomeuniquefeatures,suchas"zeroinventoryforproduction,globalizationofprocurementandnetworkingordering".Thesehaveputforwardhigherre,thelowefficiencyofChina’scustomscleara,reformingthecustomsclearancesystemanddevelopinginternationalpivotalportswillhelpincreasetheaddedvalueofChina’,developinginternationalpivotalportsisarequirementfordevelopingmoderndistributionandstrengtheningChina’sstatusastheworld’’sstatusintheinternationalmanufacturingdivisionoflaborhasdrasticallyelevated,theindustrialchainofthecountry’sforeigntradehasbee,somewell-knowninternationalretailenterprisesareplanningtoestablishgoodsdistributioncentersattheportsclosetoChina’,Val-MartplanstoestablishaprocurementanddistributioncenterinShenzhenforprocurement,classifiedpackaging,’smoderndistribution,butalsofurtherspurexportandstrengthenChina’sstatusastheworld’,theexistingcustomsclearancesystemisinconsistent,Chinahasalreadyha,thecoastalcitiesineastChinaareallonthemajorinternationalshippingroutesinwesternPa,thecontainershandledinEastAsiaaccountedfor50percentoftheworld’,thereisagreatpotentialforthepo,China’’,,China’sinternationaltradeismainlyconc,Ch,China’y’sownforeigntrade,,theYantianPortinShenzhenisinvestedandmanagedbytheHehuangGroup,,China’sShanghaiPortandShenzhenPortrespectivelyrankedthefifthandeighthamongtheworld’slargestcontainerports....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-11


                    方仪静:ZhangJunkuoandZhaoHuaiyongResearchReportNo138,stributionandstructureofstate-ownedeconomy,upporting,leadinganddrivingnationaleconomy,seriousandirrationalsituationstillexistsindistributionandstructureofstate-ownedeconomy,:(1)Theproblemsofunreasonabledistributionofstate-ownedeconomyandthemisplacement,,thenumberofstate-ownedenterprisesdistributedinordinarycompetitiveindustriesreached155,000in2001,(SOEs).yrestrictedthe,state-ownedassetsarestillwidelydistributedinalargenumberofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises(SMEs).Thenumberofstate-ownedindustrialandcommercialSMEsstoodat164,000in2001,,whilethetotalassetsofstate-ownedindustrialandcommercialSMEsreachedRMB5,720billion,,inmanyfieldswherethestate-ownedeconomyandcapitalshallfullyplaytheirroles,,theinvestmentofstate-ownedcapitalininfrastructure,basicresearchandbasiceducation,,thecurrentoutbreakandspreadofSARSepidemicalsofullyshowedthescarcityofstate-ownedcapitalsinvestmentinpublichealthandinthebuildingofanemergencyresponsesystem.(2)State-ownedenterprisesasawholehavelowcompetitiveness,etitiveindustriesandSMEswhichdoesnothaveobviouscompetitiveadvantage,thusSOEsasawholeseemtohavelowerabilityinadaptingthemselvestomarketcompetitionandpoore,,2percentagepointslowerthanthatofnonst,,net-lossSOEsamountedto67,000incompetitiveindustries,;whilelossesofthesenet-lossenterprisesincompetitiveindustriesaccountedfor73percentofallSOEsnomyissuretorestricttheupgradingthequalityofthewholenationaleconomyasstate-ownedec,atpresent,state-ownedeconomyaccountsforabout60percentofthetotalsocialassets,thecontributionofstate-ownedeconomytoChina’snationaleconomycannotmat,in2002,industrialSOEsaccountedfor62percentofthetotalassetsofallindustrialSOEsandindustrialenterpriseswhoseannualsalesexceededthescale,nnualsalesarelessthanRMB5millionhavelowratiosoffixedcapitaltovariablecapital,thecomparativecontributionrateofindustrialSOEsmaybeevenlower.(3)State-ownedeconomyisnotablartyCentralCommittee,themainfunctionofstate-ownedeconomyisnottodevelopitsownscalebuttosupport,rdinarycompetitivefieldswhereprivatecapitalisabletoplayitsrolewell,difficultiesfortheirsurvival,nottomentiontheirroleinsupportinganddrivingthewholenationaleconomy.(4)Thelagging-behindofreformandpoorperformanceofstate-ownederesourcesandasthedistributionstructureofstate-ownedcapitalisirrational,thisnotonlyresultsinpoorperformanceofSOEsbutalsoin-effectiveplayoftheroleofsupportingthewholenationaleconomysothatthewholeeconomy’occurringatthepresentstageofChinatothelagging-behindreadjustmentandreformofdistributionofstate-ownedeconomyandlagging-behindreformofstate-ownedeconomy,suchasurbanlaid-offemployees,banks’conomyareactuallyconnecte,animportantreasonfortheslowincreaseoffarmers’incomeisthaturbanindustrialeconomyhaspoorperformance,especiallystate-ownedeconomy,whichfailstoproduceenoughsurplustosubsidizetheagriculturalsectorandenoug,thedevelopment’seconomicdevelopmentisincoordinatewithsocialdevelopment,ocialundertakingswhichincludeculture,liswidelyscatteredinordinarycompetitivefieldswithcomparativelyscarceinvestmentinsocialundertakings....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-11


                    常宏涛:LiuShijinResearchReportNo212,:ThereExistsImmenseSpaceforReducingState-HeldSharesThankstotheeffortsintheoretical,policyandpracticalexplorationinrecentyears,majorprogresshasbeenmade,thestateneedstomaintainitscontrolovercertainareas,namelythosethatareimportanttostatesecurity,theareasofnaturalmonopoly,theareasthatprovidepublicgoodsandservices,,thegeneralorientationofthereorganizationofthestate-ownedeconomyandthereductionofstate-heldsha,thereares,thestate-ownedcapitalcanquitfromtheareasofgeneralcompetitiveneywellandwehavereasontobelievethatthestate-ownedcapitalintheseenterprisesdoesnothavetoquit(thatwillhelpthestate-ownedcapitalpreserveandincreaseitsvalue).Butinlightof“majorprinciples”,itisperhapsabetterchoiceforthiskindofhigh-qualitycapitaltoquitandtoreplenishthesoc,theso-calledcontrolcanbeintheformofexclusivestateownershipand,inmostcases,canbeintheformofstateshare-holding,includingabsolutestateshare-holding,,wecanevendrawonforeignexperienceandintroducethe“goldenshare”system,thatis,thestatehasno“controlthesameamountofothercapitalwithaslessstate-ownedcapitalaspossible”.Sointheareaswherethestateneedstomaintainitscontrol,,telecom,electricity,petroleumandpetrochemicalindustriesareactuallythose,whosehigh-qualitycapitalcanbe“soldatbetterprices”.thereductionandrealizationofpartofthestate-ownedcapitalonlychangestheformoftheexistenceofthestate-ownedcapitalanddoesnotnecessarilycauseanylosstoor“drainaway”,itisindeedimpossibletoruleoutthepossibilityofthestate-ownedcapitalbeing“drainedaway”,thelogicconclusionshouldbetorectifytheexistin,,refusingtoreduceandrealizethestate-heldsharescaninnowayguaranteethatsuchcapitalwillnot“drainaway”.Numerousfactsprovethatwhenthestate-ownedcapitaldoesnotflow,theassetdepreciationduetotheoperatinglossesofthestate-,onemayfindthatafterstockreductionandrealization,thestate-ownedcapitalhasavoided,,,thewagesreceivedbytheiremployeeswereonlyaportionofthetotalduetothem,,pension,healthcare,(orthestate-ownedenterprises),thereinfactexistedacontractualrelationshipthatthestateshouldprovidetheemployeeswithhousing,pension,sinceChinabeganreformandopeningupandastherehaveexistedshortcomingsinthecashbasissystemoftheseenterprises,thestate(orspecificstate-ownedenterprises),replenishingthesocialsecurityfundswithearningsfromthereductionandrealizationofpartoftheexistingstate-heldsharescanbeontrolitseconomicresourcesbywayofrunningenterprisesorcontrollingnon-stockandhigh-liquidityformsofassets,suchasbonds,funds,,suchachoicewasinevitable,foritwastrulydifficulttofindotherwaystomanagemoreresources,,however,onefundamentalchangeisthatresourcesorassetscanbreaktheconfinementofmaterialformandtaketheformofvalue,ghtofthenumberofthestate-ownedorstate-runenterprises,:onescenarioisthatthestate(governmentsatalllevels)isincontroloffinancialrevenueequivalentto20%ofGDPandatthesametimepossessestheassetsofthestate-ownedenterprisesequivalenttoanother20%ofGDP,andthattheseenterprisesarepoorlyoperating,mostlymakinglossesandhavingverylittleliquidity;anotherscenarioisthatthestate(governmentsatalllevels)isincontroloffinancialrevenueequivalentto40%ofGDPandatthesametimepossessesacertainamountofbonds,fund,then,enablesthestatetocontrolmoreresourceargeEnterprisesOneimportantprogressinthereformofstate-ownedenterprisesinrecentyearshasbeenthatgreatbreakthroughshavebe,observationsindicat,attentionisfocusedonthelargestate-ownedenterprises,eachofwhichgenerallyhasassetsworthofseveralhundredmillion,,purchasebyprivatecapitalorothermethodsusedtorestruc,oneimportantquestionishowtofindinvestorswithadequatefinancialstrengthtorwnedenterprisesoperateatahigewlargeinvestors,butalsotheissuesrelatingtotheirtechnologysources,,itispreferable,reducingstate-heldsharesmustfocusonthelargestate-ownedenterprisesa,itshouldenabletheenterprisestoformeffectiveinternalgovernanceandorganizationalst,therecanbemanyoptions....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.   2019-11-10


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